Task 8 Harvard Referencing and models

Since my design project will involve text, images and video, I think I will look at Mayer’s research on multimedia. He claims that “students can learn more deeply from well-designed multimedia messages consisting of words and pictures than from more traditional modes of communication involving words alone” (Mayer, 2003. p. 125) . His research identified 4 different effects :


  • a multimedia effect — learning is more effective when words and images are used rather than just words (both in print and online)
  • a coherence effect —learning is more effective when fosused on the key material that needs to be learned
  •  a spatial contiguity effect—learning is more effective when the words are placed close to the picture they relate to
  • a personalization effect—learning is more effective  when the text is ‘conversational’ i.e. informal rather than formal

Mayer, Richard E. (2003) ‘The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media.’ Learning and Instruction. 13 (2), pp. 125-139


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